Saturday, June 26, 2010

Krantijyot Savitribai Jyotiba Phule

Birth: 3rd Jan 1831 (Naigaon,Tha. Khandala Dist. Satara)
Father's name: Khandoji Nevse.
Mother's name: Laxmibai.
Death: 10th March 1897.

Savitribai was the first female teacher of the India. She was born on 3rd Jan 1831 in Naigaon, dist satara in Maharashtra. She was born on after the thirteen years of British rule in India and end of Peshwa rulein Maharashtra. In that time, it was common to marry a girl at the age of early childhood. Due to this tradition she was get married to Jyotirao Phule at the age of nine. But she stay at her father's home because Jyotirao was studying in a missionary school. After completing Jyotiba's education Savitribai came to lived with him, at the age of 20.

Jyotiba's opinion that every women must be educated.And thats why he started teaching English and Marathi to Savitribai at home. Savitribai became very good in English and Marathi. On 14 Jan 1848, Jyotirao started a school in Pune. This school was opened in a corridor of his friend house. This was the first school which was opened especially for girls for the first time in India. There was only 9 girls belonging to different caste enrolled themselves as students. Savitribai was given the charge of the school and hence, she became the first woman teacher of India.

Its a very difficult experience to leave house in the morning and going to school for Savitribai. The Orthodox society would not prepared for that. People belived that the food, her husbond ate would turn into worms and she would lost him by his untimely death. Apart from all these oppositions she yet continued to teach the girls. Whenever she went out of her house some group of orthodox men would follow and insult her in the disgusting language. They would throw rotten egg, cow dung, tomatoes, stones at her. The ordeal continued for a long time till Savitribai had to slap a person who tried to irritate her. That slap brought to an end of her bad experiences and she continued her job of teaching. Jyotiba and Savitribai managed to open five more schools in the year 1848 itself. She was honoured by the British for her educational work.

During those days marriages were arranged in between young girls and old mens. Men used to die due to old age or some sickness and the girls they had married left widows. Widows were not expected to use cosmatics or to look beautiful. There head were shaved and the society forced them to live there life by simply. Savitribai and Jyotiba were moved by the remarriage of such widows and castigated the barbers. They organized the strick of barbars and conveyt them not to shaved the widows head. This was the first strick of its kind. They also fought againts all forms of social prejudices.

She worked relentlessly for the victims of plague, where she organized camps for poor childrens. It is said that she used to feed two thousand children every day during the epidemic. By a strange irony, she herself was struck by the disease while nursing a sick child and died on 10 March 1897.

Friday, June 11, 2010

Adolf Hitler –Rise to Power

Adolf Hitler was a struggling young artist who became a feared dictator (powerful ruler). He led his country into a bloody war that killed millions of people. The German peoples are also called him Fuhrer (Autocratic leader)

He was born in 20th April 1889, Austria-Hungary. He is come from well to do family. His father, Alois was an important government worker(Customs Officer). His mother was Klara, and Adolf was much closer to his mother rather than his father. Adolf started his school at the age of six. But due to continuous moves from one village to another because of his fathers transfer, his study becomes poor and he left his school. His dream to become an artist. But his father sent him to the Realschule in Linz, a technical high school of about 300 students, in September 1900, rather than in classical high school. During this period he had gained interest in politics and history.

Alois’s sudden death on 3rd Jan 1903, due to this Hitler’s behaviour at the technical school become even more disruptive and he was leaved his school. From 1905 on, Hitler lived a bohemian an artist) life in Vienna on an orphan's pension and support from his mother. He was rejected twice by the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna (1907–1908), citing "unfitness for painting", and was told his abilities lay instead in the field of architecture .

Adolf Hitler written the below sentence in his biography…“The purpose of my trip was to study the picture gallery in the Court Museum, but I had eyes for scarcely anything but the Museum itself. From morning until late at night, I ran from one object of interest to another, but it was always the buildings which held my primary interest.”

The Courtyard of the Old Residency in Munich, by Adolf Hitler, 1914

On 21 December 1907, his mother died due to breast cancer at the age of 45. When he was 21, he struggled as a painter in vienna, coping scenes from postcard and selling these paintings to merchants and tourists.

In August 1914 When Germany entered in World War I, he requested King
Ludwig III of Bavaria for permission to serve in a Bavarian regiment. This request was granted, and Adolf Hitler enlisted in the Bavarian army. Hitler served in France and Belgium in the 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment. He was a runner, doing very dangerous job on the western front. He participated in a number of major battles on the Western Front , including the First Battle of Ypres, the Battle of the Somme , the Battle of Arras and the Battle of Passchendaele . On 15 October 1918, Hitler was admitted to a field hospital ,due to temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack.

Hitler said it was during this experience that he became convinced the purpose of his life was to "save Germany."And then in 1919, the world war 1 was ended with lots of enforced laws against Germany. In same year Hitler joined the politics.

Given the responsibility for publicity and propaganda .Hitler first succeeded in attracting over a hundred people to a meeting in held October at which he delivered his first speech to a large audience. The meeting and his oratory were a great success, and subsequently in February 1920 he organized a much larger event for a crowd of nearly two thousand in the Munich Hofbrauhaus. Hitler himself was not the main speaker, but when his turn came he succeeded in calming a impose audience and presented a twenty-five point programmed of ideas which were to be the basis of the party. The name of the party was itself changed to the National Socialist German Workers Party (or Nazi for short) on April 1st 1920.

He was arrested and taken to the prisoner. During these days he wrote his biography “Main Kamfp”. He was released in December 1924; he rebuilt his party and makes his party strong.

In September 1932, the Nazi members of the Reichstag, together with support form the Center Party elected the prominent Nazi Herman Goering as President of the Reichstag. Using his new position, Goering managed to prevent the Chancellor from presenting an order to dissolve the Reichstag, whilst a vote of no confidence in the Chancellor and his government was passed. Thus having forced the resignation of the new government, the Reichstag allowed its own dissolution. Although losing 34 of their seats in the following election, the Nazis retained enough influence to assure that Papen would be unable to form a new Government and the Chancellor resigned on 17th of November 1932.

Hitler and his Nazi party had other ideas, and Schleicher found that he was unable to win the support of any of the parties in the Reichstag and was forced to resign as Chancellor on January 28th 1933. Finally on January 30th, 1933 President Hindenburg decided to appoint Hitler Chancellor in a coalition government with Papen as Vice-Chancellor. He penultimate step towards Adolf Hitler gaining complete control over the destiny of Germany were taken on the night of 27th February 1933.

Hitler managed one of the greatest expansions of industrial production and civil improvement. Mostly based on debt flotation and expansion of the military. Nazi policies toward women strongly encouraged them to stay at home to take care of children and keep house. In a September 1934 speech to the National Socialist Women's Organization, Adolf Hitler argued that for the German woman her "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home." This policy was reinforced by bestowing the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babies. The unemployment rate was cut substantially, mostly through arms production and sending women home so that men could take their jobs. Given this, claims that the German economy achieved near full employment are at least partly artifacts of propaganda from the era. Much of the financing for Hitler's reconstruction and rearmament came from currency manipulation by Hjalmar Schacht, including the clouded credits through the Mefo bills .
Hitler managed one of the largest infrastructure-improvement campaigns in German history, with the construction of dozens of dams, autobahns , railroads, and other civil works.Hitler's policies emphasised the importance of family life: men were the "breadwinners", while women's priorities were to lie in bringing up children and in household work. This new idea of industry and infrastructure came at the expense of the overall standard of living.

In 1939 the World War II was started and the participants in World War II were those nations who either participated directly in or were affected by any of the theaters or events of World War II.

World War II was primarily fought between two large military alliances. TheAxis powers were a group of countries led by Nazi Germany , the Italy and the Empire of Japan. They were considered the attackers of the war. The Allies, led by the United Kingdom and until its defeat, France, were joined in the European theatre by the Soviet Union in June 1941 and by the United States in December 1941. In the Asia-Pacific theater, the Allies were led by the Republic of China, following the 1937 invasion of China by Japan , and the United States and the British Commonwealth, following the 1941-1942 Japanese attacks .

As the Red Army approached Berlin and the Anglo-Americans reached the Elbe, on 19 March 1945 Hitler ordered the destruction of what remained of German industry, communications and transport systems. He was resolved that, if he did not survive, Germany too should be destroyed.

On April 29, 1945, he married with his mistress Eva Braun and dictated his testament. The following day Hitler committed suicide, shooting himself through the mouth with a pistol. His body was carried into the garden of the Reich Chancellery by aides, covered with petrol and burned along with that of Eva Braun.

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

Albert Einstein " Salute to him and his Remarkable Scientific Work."

Born: 14 March 1879 Ulm, in W├╝rttemberg, Germany
Fathers Name:
Mothers name: Pauline
Died: 18 April 1955 (aged 76) Princeton, New Jersey

Albert Einstein was born in small city 'Ulm' in Germany on
14th march 1879. He could not show the expected progress as per his physical age.He could not even talk up to 3 yrs of his age and hence he was supposed to be dull. He learned violin at the age of six and took lessons of violin from a teacher.

Albert's father was businessman . His business was to sell electrical parts. When Albert was taking his primary education in Germany, his father leaved Germany due to loss in business and went to Italy. Albert lived in Germany up to the age of sixteen. During his stay in Germany ,he did not not like the German educational pattern. Even he did not like the German social structure. He always hated Germany. There were no individual freedom in Germany. According to Germany rule, every one has to join military compulsory at the age of seventeen. Due to this, he left Germany and went to Italy. He completed his school education in Italy. Further he joined 'Swiss Federal Institute of Technology'. Albert completed his graduation in 1900 with good marks. While learning in Switzerland, he got married with Hengerian girl named 'Mileva Merick' who was learning in his class. But he took divorce from her in 1919 leaving behind two sons and one daughter.He re-married in the same year but his second wife died in 1936.

It was essential for him to join service at any cost due to bad financial condition of his father. He joined as technical clerk in patent office in Bern city after two years struggle. In his office he used to study physics after completing his routine work. During his service in petent office, he submitted a research paper to 'Zurich University' and was awarded 1905.

Einstein published the following four scientific research papers.

1) Theory of Relativity.
2) Brownian Theory of Motion.
3) Mass-Energy Relation E=mc^2.
4) Photoelectric Effect.

Einstein was awarded Noble Prize for the discovery of Photoelectric effect in 1921.The famous mass-energy relation E=mc^2 has supplied the basic principle for the production of 'Atom bomb'. Further we worked as Director of 'Kaiser William Institute of Physics' from 1914 to 1933. He left Germany in the year 1933 and joined as professor in Institute for Advanced Study in Prinstein(America). He retired from this institute in 1945.

He publish near about 300 research papers through out his lifetime. American President immediately started 'Man-Hatton Yojana' to make atom bomb on the suggestion of Einstein. Actually he was in opposition to make the direct use of atom bomb, but only to teach lesson to the Germany. He felt very guilty after hearing the news of bombarding the atom bombs on the city 'Hiroshima' and 'Nagasaki'

He worked for the welfare of human being after his retirement. He died on 18th April 1955 in America.


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