Monday, October 10, 2011

Martin luther King Jr. " Who Fight For Equality"

Birth: 5th Jan 1929, Atlanta,Georgia U.S.
Father's Name: Martin Luther King, Sr.
Mother's Name: Alberta willams King.
Death: 4th April 1968, Memphis,Tennessee, U.S.

He was born as Michael Luther King but later had his name changed to Martin. Because he wanted to become like his dad. So he acquires his father's name Martin. He was middle child of his parents. He had an elder sister and younger brother. His grandfather, Father and he also were the pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.

Martin attended Booker T. Washington High School. He was a precocious student thats why he skip ninth and the twelfth grade and entered Morehouse College at the age of 15 without formally graduating from high school. In 1948, he became graduate with B.A. degree in Sociology. He had a great hobby to read. On some day he was reading in library on the same table there was a lady Coretta Scott infront of him. Later she became his wife in 1953. They had four children. In 1954, when he was 25 years old, became Pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.Later he began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University and received his doctor of Philosophy on June 5, 1955.

In December 1955, he accept the leadership of the first nigro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man. So, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, urged and planned byNixon and led by King. The boycott lasted for 385 days. During those days King was arrested and his house was bombed. At last, Supreme Court of the United States declared unconstitutional the laws requiring segregation on buses, Negroes and whites rode the buses as equals.

In 1957, he was elected president of the Southern Christian Conference. In the eleven year period between 1957 to 1968, Martin Luther King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twentyfive hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest and action. He wrote five books and as well so many artiicles. He directed the peaceful march on Washington D.C. of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address , 'I Have a Dream', he conferred with President John F. Kennedy and Compaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson.

He was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities in the U. S. and elsewhere. He was the youngest man to have received the Noble Peace Prize. In almost fifty U.S. states, celebrates the Martin Luther King Jr. Day on 3rd monday of January to honor King.

On March 29, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee for some work. When he was stood in the balcony of the motel on 4th April 1968. A shot sound out and the bullet entered through King's cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord. He fell down on the floor. After an emergency chest surgery king was pronounced dead at St. Joseph's Hospital at 7.05 pm.

Saturday, July 30, 2011

Mother Teresa- "The great servant of humanity."

Birth:- 27th August, 1910 Skopje, Macedonia.
Father's Name:- Nikolle Bojaxhiu.
Mother's Name:- Drana Bojaxhiu.
Death:- 5th September, 1997 Kolkata, India.

Mother Teresa was the great servant of humanity. She was the Albanian Catholic nun(religious woman who dedicate their lives to religious devotion and undertake not to marry.) Her original name was Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu. She was born on 27th August 1910 in Skopje, Macedonia. She was the youngest of the three siblings. Her father was a successful merchant and was involved in Albanian politics. He died in 1919 when she was 8 yrs old. After her father's death, her mother raised her as a Roman Catholic.

Agnes was Fascinated by stories of lives of missionaries and their service in Bengal. And then she was decided that she should commit herself to a religious life when she was 12. At the age of 18th, She left her parental home and joined the Sisters of Loreto, an Irish community of nuns with missions in India. In 1929, after her few months training at the institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Dublin she came to India.

On May 24, 1931, she took her initial vows as a nun. And from 1931 to 48 she taught geography and catechism at St. Mary's School. Meanwhile she saw poverty in Kolkata(Calcutta) and had deep impact on her. Due to this, she left her job and devote herself to working among the poorest poor of Kolkata(Calcutta). She took a short course with the Medical Mission Sisters in Patana and returned to Kolkata(Calcutta). Where she started an open-air school for slum children.

Soon She was joined by Voluntary helpers and received financial support from Church organization and the municipal autherities. While on October 7, 1950 She received permission from Vatican to start her own order.
'The Missionaries of Charity', whose primary task was to love and care for those persons nobody was prepared to look after. The Missionaries of Charity, which starts as a small order with 12 members in Kolkata(Calcutta), but today has more than 4,000 nuns running orphanages, AIDS hospices, charity centres worldwide, and caring for refugees, the blind, disabled, aged, alcoholics, the poor and homeless and victims of floods, epidemics and famine in Asia, Africa, Latin America, North America, Poland, and Australia.

In 1965, by granting a Decree of Praise, Pope Paul VI granted permission to expand her order to other countries. The order's first house outside India was in Venezuela. Now a days, 'the Missionaries of Charity' has spread in more than 100 countries. Because of her selfless work she has received number of awards and distinctions. Those includes Pope John XXIII Peace Prize(1971), Nehru Prize for promotion of international Peace and Understanding(1972), Balzan Price(1978), Nobel Peace Prize(1979) and Bharat Ratna(1980).

Mother Teresa suffered a heart attack in Rome in 1983, and in 1989 got second. After she received an artificial pacemaker. In 1991, her fight with pneumonia while she suffered futher heart problems. Meanwhile she offered to resign her position of head but nuns of the order wanted her to stay. In April 1996, she fell and broke her coller bone, in August she suffered from malaria and failure of the left ventricle. She had heart surgery but it was clear that her health was declining. Mother Teresa stepped down from the head of Missionaries of charity on March 13, 1997 and just 9 days after she died.

Monday, May 2, 2011

Alfred Nobel- "The founder of Nobel prize"

Birth:- 21 Oct. 1833, Stckholm, Sweden.
Father's Name:- Immanuel Nobel.
Mother's Name:- Caroline Andrietta Ahlsell
Death:- 10 Dec. 1896

Alfred Nobel, who invented the powderful explosives used in modern warfare but also established the World's most prestigious prize for intellectual services rendered to humanity.

Alfred was the third son of Immanuel and Caroline among eight children. Unfortunately four were survived. Immanuel(father) was inventor and engineer, who had invented modern plywood. Alfred was more closed with his mother and displayed a lively intellectual curiosity from an early age. He was interested in explosive and he learned the fundamentals of engineering from his father. During that period his father had failed at various business until moving in 1837 to St. Petersburg in Russia. Where Immanuel grew prospered as a manufacturer of explosive mines and machine tools. Then in 1842, Nobel family left Stockholm to join Immanuel at St Petersburg.

At the age of 16, Alfred was a competent chemist and was fluent in English, French, German, Russian, and Swedish. He left Russia in 1850 to spend a year in Paris studing chemistry and then spent four years in United States working under the direction of John Ericsson, the builder of the ironclad warship Monitor.

When he was returned to Petersburg, he worked in his father's factory. Alfred and his parents returned to Sweden, while his brothers Robert and Ludvig stayed in Russia to salvage what was left of the family business. Alfred then began experimenting with explosives in a small laboratory on his father's estate. In 1862, he built a small factory to manufacture nitroglycerin, which is so volatile so could not be handled with any degree of safty. In 1863, he invented a practical detonator. Which makes his reputation as an inventor and the fortune he was to acquire as a maker of explosives. later then he invented an improved detonator called blasting cap in 1865. But it's remained difficult to transport and extremely dangerous to handle. In fact, his nitroglycerin factory blew up in 1864, killing his younger brother Emil and several people.

Alfred never got married. He had three loves. First love was in Russia with Alexandra who rejected his proposal. Second was with Bertha Kinsky. She was his secretary but she left him and marry to her previous lover. She corresponded with him until his death. She was awarded in 1905 with the Nobel Peace Prize for her sincere peace activities. And third was with Sofie Hess from Vienna. They stayed in contact for 18 yrs and also exchanged many letters. Alfred addressed her as 'Madame Sofie Nobel'. His letters were locked within the Nobel Institute in Stockholm and become the best-kept secret of the time.

In the year 1870-80 he built a network of factories throughout Europe to manufacture dynamite. And he continued to experiment in search of better ones, and in 1875 he invented a more powerful form of dynamite, blasting gelatin which he patented. Again by chance he had discovered a tough, plastic material that has a high water resistance and greater blasting power than ordinary dynamite.

In the year 1895 Alfred had developed chest pain and he died due to cerebral hemorrhage at his villa in San Remo, Italy, in 1896. At that time, his worldwide business empire consisted of more than 90 factories. The opening of his will, which he drawn up in Paris on 27th of Nov, 1895 and had deposited in a bank in Stockholm. That contained a great surprised for his family, friends and the general public. He left the bulk of his fortune in trust to establish what came to be the most highly regarded of international awards, the 'Nobel Prize'. The prize has honored men and women for outstanding achievement in Physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and for work in peace.

Friday, February 11, 2011

The heart touching story of Rani Padmini-"The Queen of Chittor"

Name: Rani Padmini

In 12th and 13th centuries, Rawal Ratan Singh was the King of Chittor. Rani Padmini, the wife of King Rawal Ratan Singh and Queen of Chittor and often a mythological figure for her womanhood and sacrifice.

During those days, the Sultanate of Delhi- the kingdom set up by the invaders was nevertheless growing in power. That time Allah-ud-din Khilji was the Sultan and who made repeated attack on Mewar on one reason and the other.

At the same time Chittor was under the Rule of Rawal Ratan Singh, a brave and noble warrior King. As well a patron of the arts. In his court were many talented people one of whom was a musician named Raghav Chetan. But unknown to everyone, he was also a sorcerer. He used his evil talent to run down his competitor but unluckily was caught red-handed. On hearing this King was angry and he punished Raghav Chetan to send away from his kingdom after blackening his face and making him ride on donkey.

Due to this, Raghav Chetan became an uncompromising enemy of the King. Raghav Chetan made his way towards Delhi with the aim of trying to incite the Sultan of Delhi Allah-ud-din Khilji to attack chittor.

When Raghav Chetan come near to Delhi, was settled down in one of the forests nearby Delhi which the Sultan used frequently for hunting deers. One day he saw the hunt party entering the forest, he started playing a melodious tone on his flute. Hunt party get surprised, and they found Raghav Chetan was playing a flute . Raghav Chetan was then brought before sultan, and the Sultan asked him to come to his court at Delhi.The cunning Raghav-Chetan asked the king as to why he wants to have a ordinary musician like himself when there were many other beautiful objects to be had. The Sultan wondering what Raghav Chetan meant, Sultan asked him to clarify. Then he told about Rani Padmini's beauty, Allah-ud-din's lust was aroused and immediately on returning to his capital he gave orders to his army to march on Chittor.

But he get disappointed, due to the fort to be heavily defended. Hopefull to have a look at the legendary beauty of Padimini, he send word to King Ratan Singh that he looked upon padmini as his sister and wanted to meet her. On hearing this, the unsuspecting Ratansen asked Padmini to see the 'brother'. But Padmini was more wordly-wise and she refused to meet the lustful Sultan personally.

Rani Padmini then convinced by her husband, She agreed to allow Allah-ud -din to see her only in a mirror.On the word being sent to Allah-ud-din that Padmini would see him, he came to the fort with his selected and best warriors who secretly made a careful examination of the fort's defences on their way to the Palace. On seeing Padmini, in a mirror, the lustful Sultan decided that he should secure Padmini for himself. While returing to his camp, Sultan was accompanied for some way by King Ratan Singh. Taking this opportunity, Sultan skillfully kidnapped Ratan Singh and took him as a prisoner into his camp and demanded that Padmini come and surrender herself before Sultan, if she wanted her husband king Ratan Singh alive again.

The Rajput generals decided to beat the Sultan at his own game and sent back a word that Padmini would be given to Sultan the next morning. On the following day at the crack of dawn, one hundred and fifity palaquins (covered cases in which royal ladies were carried in medieveal times) left the fort and made their way towards Sultan's camps. The palanquins stopped before the tent where king Ratan singh was being held prisoner. Seeing that the palanquins had come from Chittor, and thinking that they had brought along with them his queen, king Ratan Singh was mortified. But get surprised, because his queen is not there in the palanquins but her women servant and fully armed soldiers, who quickly freed Ratan Singh and galloped away towards Chittor on horses grabbed from Sultan's stables.

On hearing that, the lustful Sultan was furious and ordered his army to attack on Chittor. But hard as they tried the Sultans army could not break into the fort. Sultan decided to lay seige to the fort. The seige was the prolonged effort to gain the fort. Finally King Ratnasingh gave orders that the Rajputs would open the gates and fight to finish with the besieging troops. On hearing of this decision, Padmini decided that with their men-folk going into the unequal struggle with the Sultan's army in which they were sure to perish, the women of Chittor had either to commit suicides or face dishonour at the hands of the victorious enemy.

The choice was in favour of suicide through Jauhar. A huge pyre was lit and followed by their queen, all the women of Chittor jumped into the flames and deceived the lustful enemy waiting outside. With their womenfolk dead, the men of Chittor had nothing to live for. Their charged out of the fort and fought on furiously with the vastly Powerful array of the Sultan, till all of them perished. After this phyrrhic victory the Sultan's troops entered the fort only to be confronted with ashes and burnt bones of the women whose honour they were going to violate to satisfy their lust.

These women who committed Jauhar had to perish but their memory has been kept alive till today by bards and songs which glorify their act which was right in those days and circumstances. Thus a halo of honour is given to their supreme sacrifice.

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