Sunday, December 19, 2010

Lance Armstrong " The Challenger"


Birth: 18th September 1971, in Plano, Texas
father's Name: Eddie Charles Gunderson
Mother's Name: Linda Mooneyham

Lance Armstrong is an American professional road racing cyclist. Famous for winning the 'Tour de France' a record seven consecutive times (1999-2005) after having survived 'Testicular Cancer'. And also a founder and chairman of the 'Lance Armstrong Foundation' for cancer research and
support.
Armstrong was born on 18th september 1971 in Plano, Texas. His father Eddie Charles Gunderson, was a route manager for 'The Morning News'. And his mother linda, was a secretary. His father left his mother when Lance was two yrs old and 2 children from another relationship. Linda later married to Terry Keith Armstrong, who was a wholesale salesman. And who adopated Lance in 1974. His mother was married and divorced three times in her lifetime. Lance refuses to meet his birth father and he has described Terry Armstrong as deceitful.

When Armstrong was 12 yrs old, he began his sporting career as a swimmer. But he stopped swimming after seeing a poster for junior triathlon which he entered and won easily. In 1987-1988 he was the number one ranked triathlon. And he became a professional triathlete and also a national sprint-course triathlon champion in 1989 and 1990.

It became clear that his greatest talent was for bicycle racing. In 1992, he competed in the Tour of Ireland race. And in 1993, he won the 10 one-day events and stage races and become the youngest riders to win the UCI Road World Championship. He collected the Thrift Drug Triple crown of Cycling twice. In 1995, he won the Clasica San Sebastian and in 1996 he became the first American to win the La Fleche Wallonne.

On 2nd october 1996, when he was 25 yrs, diagnosed with stage three testicular cancer. The cancer spread to his lungs, abdomen and brain. And on first visit to a urologist for his cancer symptoms he was coughing up blood and had a large and painful testicular tumor. Immediate surgery and chemotherapy were required to save his life. Orchiectomy had done to remove his diseased testicles. After surgery his doctor stated that he had less than a 40% survival chance. The standard chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of this type of cancer is a BEP(Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cisplatin or platinol) however he chose an alternative VIP(Etoposide, Ifosfamide, and Cisplatin) to avoid the lung toxicity. This decision may have saved his cycling career. Also his brain tumor were surgically removed. His last chemotherapy treatment was received on 13th December 1996. His cancer went into complete remission and he was busy in serious training for racing.

In June 1997, Armstrong met Kristin Richard and married to her on 1st May 1998. They had three children, Luke and twins lsabelle and Grace. The pregnancy was possible through sperm Armstrong banked three years earlier, prior to chemotherapy and surgery. But they filed for divorce in Sept 2003. Armstrong later dating with singer-songwriter Sheryl Crow and split in Feb 2006. Again in Oct 2007 with fashion designer Tory Burch. But the relationship ended after few months. Again he dated American actress Kate Hudson but the relationship ended. In Dec 2008, he announced that his girlfriend Anna Hansen, was pregnant and she gave birth to a baby boy Maxwell on 4 June 2009. The fifth and the last child was born on Oct 2010.

He won two Tour de France stages before his cancer treatment in 1993 and 1995, took 8th and 18th stage respectively. He was droped out in 1996 race after becoming ill. Armstrong's cycling comeback in 1998 after his treatment when he took 4th rank in the Vuelta a Espana.

In 1999, he won the Tour de France including four stages. He beat the secong rider Alex Zulle by 7 min 37 sec. In 2000, he won by 6 min 2 sec over Ullrich. Armstrong again beat Ullrich by 6 min 44 sec and won Tour de France in 2001. In 2002 Ullrich didn't participate due to suspension and Armstrong won by 7 min over Joseba Beloki.

Ullrich return in 2003, but again Armstrong took first place and Ullrich second by 1 min 1 sec. In 2004 Armstrong finished first, 6 min 19 sec ahead of German Andreas Kloden. Ullrich was fourth just 2 min 31 sec back from Armstrong. In 2005, Armstrong was beaten by David Zabriskie in the stage 1 time trial by 2 sec. His Discovery Channel team won the team time trial, while Armstrong won the final individual time trial. Armstrong crossed the line to complete his remarkable record on 24th July to win 7th consecutive Tour. He won by 4 min 40 sec over Basso and Ullrich was third. On the same day , Armstrong officially announced his retirement from professional cycling.

But he was comeback. Armstrong said to his livestrong.org website that 'After talking with my childern, my father, and my closest friends, I have decided to return to professional cycling in order to raise awareness of the global cancer burden.'

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Indira Gandhi- "The IRON Lady"





Birth:- 19 Nov 1917, Allahabad.
Father's Name:- Jawaharlal Nehru.
Mother's Name:- Kamala Nehru.
Death:- 31 October 1984, New Delhi.

Indira Gandhi was the first woman Prime Minister of the Republic of India for three consecutive terms from 1966-1977 and the fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, a total of fifteen years. Also she was the World's longest serving woman Prime Minister.

Indira Gandhi was born on 19th Nov 1917 in Allahabad, to Jawaharlal and Kamala Nehru. She was their only child. Her father was a lawyer and also a leader. Jawaharlal Nehru was more western than traditional and like to live sophisticated lifestyle. Her mother was a religious lady. There was a huge difference between the lifestyle of her parents. Her Grandfather Motilal Nehru was a renowned barrister of that period. Also a well-known member of the Indian National Congress Party.

In 1934-35, after finishing school, Indira joined Shantiniketan, a school set up by Rabindranath Tagore. At that school, Tagore gave her the name "Priyadarshini". (Priya=pleasing, darshini=to look at). At the later time she went to England and sat for the University of Oxford entrance exam. But she failed in that so Indira spent a few months at Badminton school in Bristol. After passing the exam Indira then joined Somerville College, University of Oxford. During this period, she was frequently met with a young Parsi man active in politics, Feroze Gandhi. Whom she knew from Allahabad. Feroze Gandhi was studing at the London School of Economics.

In 1936, her mother, Kamala Nehru, finally died due to tuberculosis after a long struggle. Indira was 18 at that time. And Kamala's husband Jawaharlal Nehru was languishing in the Indian jails that time. In the early 1940, Indira was suffered with chronic lung disease. At that time she was in Switzerland. And maintained long-distance relationship with her father in the form of long letters.

When Indira and Feroze Gandhi returned to India, they were in loved and had decided to get married. Indira liked Feroze's openness, sence of humor and self-confidence. Jawaharlal Nehru did'nt like the idea of the marriage but Indira was very derermined and the marriage took place in march 1942 acconding to the Hindu rules. In 1944, Indira gave birth to Rajiv Gandhi and two years later Sanjay Gandhi.

Both Indira and Feroze Gandhi were members of the Indian National
Congress. In the year 1952, Feroze Gandhi went to run the election from Raebareli Utter Pradesh and become a member of Parliament. During those days, their relationship was strained leading to a seperation. Indira and her two sons lived along with her father in New Delhi while Feroze at Allahabad. Shortly after his re-election, Feroze got a heart attack which leds to his death in September 1960.

During 1959 and 1960, Indira was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress. When Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister in 1966, the Congress was split in two groups, the socialists led by Gandhi, and the conservatives led by Morarji Desai. In July 196. Indira Gandhi issued order to nationalized all the banks of the country. While in 1971, to solve the Bangladeshi refugee problem, she declared war on Pakistan. India was victorious in the war and Bangladesh was born. In 1974, to strengthen the national security, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code name "Smiling Buddha" at Pokharan in Rajasthan. Due to this, India become the World's youngest nuclear power.

During the year 1975, due to the trubulent political situation in the country, Indira Gandhi declared "a state of emergency" on 26th June. In between 1975 to 1979 many politicle events was happened. She tactfully handled all the situations. During this period Janata Dal was on the Goverment and was became failure. To divert the people from their failureness they ordered to arrest Indira Gandhi. Indira gained the great sympathy from the people and she then started giving the speeches and highlighted the wrong policies of the Janata Goverment. Next election was held in 1980, Congress returned with high difference and Indira became the Prime Minister again.

The two events of the Indian political history that made Indira's image dull was 'state of emergercy and the operation blue star'. In Sept 1981, a Sikh militant group led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale demanded a seperate state of Khalistan. They started motivating the people in Punjab and organized several groups to carry out their plans. They entered into the premises of the Golden Temple to take shelter. Indira Gandhi asked General S.K. Sinha, then Vice Chief of Indian Army to prepare a position paper for assault on the Golden Temple. Sinha adviced her to take an another solution but Indira was sticked to her idea. On the night of June 5 the Indian army storned the Golden Temple led by the Major General Kuldip Singh Brar. Bhindranwale was killed along with his groups by the security forces. But the large number of innocent civilians were also killed.

The impact of this, many Sikhs resigned from the Armed and civil administrative office and also returned their Govermemt awards. On 31 October 1984, Indira's bodyguards satwant Singh and Beant Singh, to take revenge of the Golden Temple assault. They assassinated the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi at her safdarjung Road residence.

Sunday, August 15, 2010

Henry Ford - "The Founder of the Ford Motor Company"




Birth: 30 July 1863 Greenfield Township, Dearborn, michigan, U.S.
Father's Name: William Ford
Mother's Name: Mary Ford
Death: 7 April 1947, Fair Lane, Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.



Henry Ford was born on 30 July 1863. His fahter was William
Ford and mother was Mary Ford. They had a farm on which they
grew prosperous. Henry was the first child of William and Mary Ford among six childrens. His maximun childhood time was passed in the one room school and doing farms routine task. But his main interest was in mechanical things. So in 1879, when he was 16 yrs old he left home for
the nearby city of Detroit to work as an apprentice machinist. But occasionally he did the farm
work.

In the year 1888, he got married with Clara Ala Bryant. Henry supported himself and his wife by running a swamill. She always used to stay with Henry. They had a single child Edsel Bryant Ford.But he died before Henry Ford.


Henry Ford became an engineer with the Edison Illuminating
Company in Detroit in 1891. This event was most signified for Henry to dedicate his life to industrial pursuits. He was promoted to Chief Engineer in 1893. Due to this, he had enough time and money to gave to his personal experiments on internal combustion engines. These experiments reached at the highest point of completion in 1896 of his self-propelled vechicle 'The Quadricycle'. But he was not the first to build a self-propelled vechicle with a gasoline engine. However, he was one of the several automotive inventors who helped this country become a nation of motorists.

He established a company to manufacture automobiles, but was unsuccessful twice. But in 1903, the Ford Motor Company was incorporated with Henry Ford. He was the Vice-president and chief engineer of the company. At the starting, the company produced only few cars a day at the Ford factory on Mack Avenue in Detroit. He realized that his dream come true of producing an automobile. Which was reasonably priced, reliable and efficient. He introduced the Model T in 1908.The Model T was easy to operate, maintain, and handle on rough roads. So Model T became huge success.

The demand of the Model T was grawing, so Henry Ford opened a large factory at Highland Park, Michigan, in 1910. Ford's production of Model T made his company the largest automobile manufacturer in the world. The Ford company was the world's largest industrial complex along with the banks of the Rouge River in Dearborn, Michigan during 1910 and 1920. Later on in september 1927, all steps in the manufacturing process from rifining raw materials to final assembly of the automobile took place at the huge Rouge Plant, it was Henry Fords dream of mass production.

Henry Ford opposed war, he thought that was a waste of time. But he and Adolf Hitler admired each others achievement. Adolf Hitler kept a full sized portrait next to his desk. And the message on that was "I regard Henry Ford as my Inspiration."

Due to ill health, in September 1945, Ford give up the presidency to his grandson Henry Ford II and went into retirement. In 1947 Henry Ford was died due to a cerebral hemorrhage, at the age of 83 in Fair Lane, and he was buried in the Ford Cemetery in Detroit.

Tuesday, July 20, 2010

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam - "A Missile Man"



Birth: 15 October 1931, at Dhanushkodi in the Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu.
Mothers Name: Ashiamma
Fathers Name: Jainulabiddin



Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam sir was born on 15th october 1931 at Dhanushkodi in the Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu. His full name was "Avul PakirJainulabdeen Abdul Kalam". He is from a middle-class family. His father Jainulabiddin, had to rent the boats to the fishermen. His mother Ashiamma had gained much formal education. His father having quality to innate wisdom, true generosity of spirit and was a spiritual person. His father
commanded a high respect religious man. Dr. Kalam distributed newspapers at a young age to help with household expenses.

Dr.Kalam's primary education was completed in Ramaeswaran. And then he went to Schwartz High School at Ramanathpuram from where he went to Tiruchchirapalli for higher studies. Dr.Kalam was the first graduate from his family. He wrote "By the time I completed my education at Schwartz, I was a self-confident boy with the determination to be successful. The decision to go in for further education was taken without a second thought. To us, in those days, the awarness of the possibilities for a professional education did not exist; higher education simply meant going to college." After completing his B.Sc from St. joseph's college, he joined the MIT (Madras Institute of Technology) for studing Aeronautical engineering. Then he went to HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Limited) at Bangalore as a trainee.

In 1963-64 he was invited by NASA to spend four months in the US at the Wallops Island Rocketry Centre and the Langley Research Centre. Before he become president of the country, he had divided his career in four phases.
The FIRST phase :
He worked with the Indian Space Research Organization(ISRO). After initiating Fibre Reinforced Plastics activities and spending time with the aerodynamics and design group he joined the satellite launching vehicle team at Thumba. Here he was made the Project Director of the Mission for SLV-3. He played an important role in developing satellite launch vehicle technology and expertise in control, propulsion and aerodynamics. The SLV-3 project managed to put Rohini, a scientific satellite, into orbit in July 1980. Commenting on the first phase of his career Dr. Kalam wrote: “This was my first stage, in which I learnt leadership from three great teachers—Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, Prof. Satish Dhawan and Dr. Brahm Prakash. This was the time of learning and acquisition of knowledge for me.”

The SECOND phase:
When he joined the Defence Research and Developement Organazation (DRDO). As a director, he was entrusted with the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. Under his leadership India has able to develop strategic missiles. such as Nag, Prithvi, Akash, Trishul, and Agni. About this phase Dr. Kalam wrote:“During this stage, I have gone through many successes and failures. I learnt from failures and hardened myself with courage to face them. This was my second stage, which taught me the crucial lesson of managing failures.”

The THIRD phase:
Dr. Kalam has participation with India's mission to become a nuclear weapon state, joinly undertaken by DRDA and DAE (Department of Atomic Energy). Dr. Kalam as a chairman of the TIFAC, also got involved in the creation of Technology Vision 2020 and the India Millennium Missions (IMM 2020). In Nov 1999 Dr. Kalam was appointed as a principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India.

The FOURTH phase:
Fourth phase was started when he left the post principal scientific Adviser. Then he joined the Anna University of Chennai as a Professor of technology and Societal Transformation. As part of realizing his mission he decided to ignite the minds of young. For this he wanted to meet atleast 100,000 students in differents parts of the country. Then he became the President of India in 2002.

In 1997 Dr. Kalam was awarded by the highest civilian award of India, the Bharat Ratna. The Government of India has honoured him with the Padma Bhushan(1981), Padma Vibhushan (1990). Also got Dr. Biren Roy Space award, om Prakash Basin Award for Science and Technology, National Nehru award, Arya Bhatta Award.

His favourite quotation:
"We must think and act like a nation of a billion
people and not like that of a million people.
Dream, dream, dream!! Conduct these dreams
into thoughts, and then transform them into action."

Dr. Kalam was the third Precident of the India to have been honoured with a Bharat Ratna before being elected to the highest office . He was the first scientist and the first bachelor who lived in the Rashtrapati Bhavan.
After his workperiod as the Precident he is now a visiting guest professor at JSS University, Mysore. He has agreed to deliver a minimum of four lectures every year..

Saturday, July 3, 2010

George Washington Carver-'The Plant Doctor'



Birth: January 1864 in Diamond Missouri(The exact day and year of his birth are unknown)
Mothers Name: Mary Carver
Fathers Name: Giles Carver( They both were slaves owned by Susan and Moses Carver)
Death: January 5, 1943 in Tuskegee, Alabama

George Washinging Carver was born around 1864 probabaly on january but, nobody knows for sure. His father Giles Carver and his mother Mary Carver was slave owned by Susan and Moses Carver in Diamond, Missouri.Giles Carver died right before George was born. George and his mother were kidnapped by Confederate (a supporter or soldier of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War) night-raidersand and they taken to the Arkansas. Moses carver paid money for George and bring him back home but his mother was disappeared forever. So Susan and Moses Carver reared George as their own child. It was on the Moses' farm where George first fell in love with nature, where he earned the nickname 'The Plant Doctor' and collected in earnest all manner of rocks and plants.

When he was baby he had a disease called whooping cough. It left him sickly and he couldn't do work hard like the other slaves. His daily task was cooking and sewing. He loved to work in the garden and wanted to get an education. He taught himself to read. When he was 12 yrs old he left home to attend the black school in Neosho, Kansas. There was only one teacher for 75 students in a small room. Other students played in the recess while he studied. He studied at home before and after his daily task. So he knew more than his teacher. Then he spent the next ten years traveling through the Midwest. He studied whatever he could learn. He finally finished school in his early twenties.

He wrote to a college to enroll and they accepted him, but when they found out he was black, they told him he couldn't attend. Then he spent time farming until he had enough money to go to Simpson College in Iowa. When he was 30, he was accepted at a college in Iowa. And in 1894, he became the first black student to graduate from Iowa State University. In 1896, he received his Masters Degree from Iowa State University. At this time George was beginning to be known around the U.S. for the study of fungi and parasites, and also for the study of plants.


Later in 1896, He was invited to work at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. He accepted the job and build an agriculture building and laboratory. The U.S. Department of Agriculture funded his laboratory in 1897. Carver began working on how to solve the problems the south was having with their fields. When he was came to Tuskegee the peanut had not the recognized as a crop. But later it becames the sixth leading crop in U.S. In 1940 the peanut became second most important crop in the south. He made more than 300 different products from peanut. Products such like wood stain, shampoo, face powder, printer ink, vinegar, soap, coffee, butter, milk, cheese etc. He also made different things from other plants. George also found 118 ways to make industrial materials from the sweet potatoes, like rubber. Also made 500 dyes from various southern plants.

George received many medals and awards for his discoveries in science and agriculture. He was awarded the fellow of the Royal Society of Arts from the scientific body in the Great Britain. He was also awarded by Roosevelt Medal for his service in the science field, Humanitarian award from the variety Club of America,Man of the Year award from the magazine Progressive Farmer. He had received a Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science from the university of Rochester.

Later in his life, Thomas Edison offered him $100,000 a year to come and work for him, but he thought he could do more good at Teskegee. One of his major accomplishment was the inventation and promotion of the organic fertilizing methods. Introduction of crop rotation for restoring nutrients to the soil.

He was known as a religious man. He never got married, but he says that he was married to his work. He donated his life saving to the George Washington carver Research Foundation at Teskegee Institute.

In 5th january 1943 george was died. He died from anemia and for being sick for long time. He was appeared on US commemorative stamp in 1948 and 1998, also depited on a commemorative half doller coin from 1951 to 1954. His Monument was build in 1953 near his birth place in Missouri. It was the first federal monument dedicated to a black person.

Saturday, June 26, 2010

Krantijyot Savitribai Jyotiba Phule


Birth: 3rd Jan 1831 (Naigaon,Tha. Khandala Dist. Satara)
Father's name: Khandoji Nevse.
Mother's name: Laxmibai.
Death: 10th March 1897.


Savitribai was the first female teacher of the India. She was born on 3rd Jan 1831 in Naigaon, dist satara in Maharashtra. She was born on after the thirteen years of British rule in India and end of Peshwa rulein Maharashtra. In that time, it was common to marry a girl at the age of early childhood. Due to this tradition she was get married to Jyotirao Phule at the age of nine. But she stay at her father's home because Jyotirao was studying in a missionary school. After completing Jyotiba's education Savitribai came to lived with him, at the age of 20.


Jyotiba's opinion that every women must be educated.And thats why he started teaching English and Marathi to Savitribai at home. Savitribai became very good in English and Marathi. On 14 Jan 1848, Jyotirao started a school in Pune. This school was opened in a corridor of his friend house. This was the first school which was opened especially for girls for the first time in India. There was only 9 girls belonging to different caste enrolled themselves as students. Savitribai was given the charge of the school and hence, she became the first woman teacher of India.

Its a very difficult experience to leave house in the morning and going to school for Savitribai. The Orthodox society would not prepared for that. People belived that the food, her husbond ate would turn into worms and she would lost him by his untimely death. Apart from all these oppositions she yet continued to teach the girls. Whenever she went out of her house some group of orthodox men would follow and insult her in the disgusting language. They would throw rotten egg, cow dung, tomatoes, stones at her. The ordeal continued for a long time till Savitribai had to slap a person who tried to irritate her. That slap brought to an end of her bad experiences and she continued her job of teaching. Jyotiba and Savitribai managed to open five more schools in the year 1848 itself. She was honoured by the British for her educational work.

During those days marriages were arranged in between young girls and old mens. Men used to die due to old age or some sickness and the girls they had married left widows. Widows were not expected to use cosmatics or to look beautiful. There head were shaved and the society forced them to live there life by simply. Savitribai and Jyotiba were moved by the remarriage of such widows and castigated the barbers. They organized the strick of barbars and conveyt them not to shaved the widows head. This was the first strick of its kind. They also fought againts all forms of social prejudices.

She worked relentlessly for the victims of plague, where she organized camps for poor childrens. It is said that she used to feed two thousand children every day during the epidemic. By a strange irony, she herself was struck by the disease while nursing a sick child and died on 10 March 1897.

Friday, June 11, 2010

Adolf Hitler –Rise to Power


Adolf Hitler was a struggling young artist who became a feared dictator (powerful ruler). He led his country into a bloody war that killed millions of people. The German peoples are also called him Fuhrer (Autocratic leader)

He was born in 20th April 1889, Austria-Hungary. He is come from well to do family. His father, Alois was an important government worker(Customs Officer). His mother was Klara, and Adolf was much closer to his mother rather than his father. Adolf started his school at the age of six. But due to continuous moves from one village to another because of his fathers transfer, his study becomes poor and he left his school. His dream to become an artist. But his father sent him to the Realschule in Linz, a technical high school of about 300 students, in September 1900, rather than in classical high school. During this period he had gained interest in politics and history.

Alois’s sudden death on 3rd Jan 1903, due to this Hitler’s behaviour at the technical school become even more disruptive and he was leaved his school. From 1905 on, Hitler lived a bohemian an artist) life in Vienna on an orphan's pension and support from his mother. He was rejected twice by the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna (1907–1908), citing "unfitness for painting", and was told his abilities lay instead in the field of architecture .

Adolf Hitler written the below sentence in his biography…“The purpose of my trip was to study the picture gallery in the Court Museum, but I had eyes for scarcely anything but the Museum itself. From morning until late at night, I ran from one object of interest to another, but it was always the buildings which held my primary interest.”

The Courtyard of the Old Residency in Munich, by Adolf Hitler, 1914

On 21 December 1907, his mother died due to breast cancer at the age of 45. When he was 21, he struggled as a painter in vienna, coping scenes from postcard and selling these paintings to merchants and tourists.

In August 1914 When Germany entered in World War I, he requested King
Ludwig III of Bavaria for permission to serve in a Bavarian regiment. This request was granted, and Adolf Hitler enlisted in the Bavarian army. Hitler served in France and Belgium in the 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment. He was a runner, doing very dangerous job on the western front. He participated in a number of major battles on the Western Front , including the First Battle of Ypres, the Battle of the Somme , the Battle of Arras and the Battle of Passchendaele . On 15 October 1918, Hitler was admitted to a field hospital ,due to temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack.

Hitler said it was during this experience that he became convinced the purpose of his life was to "save Germany."And then in 1919, the world war 1 was ended with lots of enforced laws against Germany. In same year Hitler joined the politics.

Given the responsibility for publicity and propaganda .Hitler first succeeded in attracting over a hundred people to a meeting in held October at which he delivered his first speech to a large audience. The meeting and his oratory were a great success, and subsequently in February 1920 he organized a much larger event for a crowd of nearly two thousand in the Munich Hofbrauhaus. Hitler himself was not the main speaker, but when his turn came he succeeded in calming a impose audience and presented a twenty-five point programmed of ideas which were to be the basis of the party. The name of the party was itself changed to the National Socialist German Workers Party (or Nazi for short) on April 1st 1920.

He was arrested and taken to the prisoner. During these days he wrote his biography “Main Kamfp”. He was released in December 1924; he rebuilt his party and makes his party strong.

In September 1932, the Nazi members of the Reichstag, together with support form the Center Party elected the prominent Nazi Herman Goering as President of the Reichstag. Using his new position, Goering managed to prevent the Chancellor from presenting an order to dissolve the Reichstag, whilst a vote of no confidence in the Chancellor and his government was passed. Thus having forced the resignation of the new government, the Reichstag allowed its own dissolution. Although losing 34 of their seats in the following election, the Nazis retained enough influence to assure that Papen would be unable to form a new Government and the Chancellor resigned on 17th of November 1932.

Hitler and his Nazi party had other ideas, and Schleicher found that he was unable to win the support of any of the parties in the Reichstag and was forced to resign as Chancellor on January 28th 1933. Finally on January 30th, 1933 President Hindenburg decided to appoint Hitler Chancellor in a coalition government with Papen as Vice-Chancellor. He penultimate step towards Adolf Hitler gaining complete control over the destiny of Germany were taken on the night of 27th February 1933.

Hitler managed one of the greatest expansions of industrial production and civil improvement. Mostly based on debt flotation and expansion of the military. Nazi policies toward women strongly encouraged them to stay at home to take care of children and keep house. In a September 1934 speech to the National Socialist Women's Organization, Adolf Hitler argued that for the German woman her "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home." This policy was reinforced by bestowing the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babies. The unemployment rate was cut substantially, mostly through arms production and sending women home so that men could take their jobs. Given this, claims that the German economy achieved near full employment are at least partly artifacts of propaganda from the era. Much of the financing for Hitler's reconstruction and rearmament came from currency manipulation by Hjalmar Schacht, including the clouded credits through the Mefo bills .
Hitler managed one of the largest infrastructure-improvement campaigns in German history, with the construction of dozens of dams, autobahns , railroads, and other civil works.Hitler's policies emphasised the importance of family life: men were the "breadwinners", while women's priorities were to lie in bringing up children and in household work. This new idea of industry and infrastructure came at the expense of the overall standard of living.

In 1939 the World War II was started and the participants in World War II were those nations who either participated directly in or were affected by any of the theaters or events of World War II.

World War II was primarily fought between two large military alliances. TheAxis powers were a group of countries led by Nazi Germany , the Italy and the Empire of Japan. They were considered the attackers of the war. The Allies, led by the United Kingdom and until its defeat, France, were joined in the European theatre by the Soviet Union in June 1941 and by the United States in December 1941. In the Asia-Pacific theater, the Allies were led by the Republic of China, following the 1937 invasion of China by Japan , and the United States and the British Commonwealth, following the 1941-1942 Japanese attacks .

As the Red Army approached Berlin and the Anglo-Americans reached the Elbe, on 19 March 1945 Hitler ordered the destruction of what remained of German industry, communications and transport systems. He was resolved that, if he did not survive, Germany too should be destroyed.

On April 29, 1945, he married with his mistress Eva Braun and dictated his testament. The following day Hitler committed suicide, shooting himself through the mouth with a pistol. His body was carried into the garden of the Reich Chancellery by aides, covered with petrol and burned along with that of Eva Braun.

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

Albert Einstein " Salute to him and his Remarkable Scientific Work."



Born: 14 March 1879 Ulm, in W├╝rttemberg, Germany
Fathers Name:
Hermann
Mothers name: Pauline
Died: 18 April 1955 (aged 76) Princeton, New Jersey



Albert Einstein was born in small city 'Ulm' in Germany on
14th march 1879. He could not show the expected progress as per his physical age.He could not even talk up to 3 yrs of his age and hence he was supposed to be dull. He learned violin at the age of six and took lessons of violin from a teacher.

Albert's father was businessman . His business was to sell electrical parts. When Albert was taking his primary education in Germany, his father leaved Germany due to loss in business and went to Italy. Albert lived in Germany up to the age of sixteen. During his stay in Germany ,he did not not like the German educational pattern. Even he did not like the German social structure. He always hated Germany. There were no individual freedom in Germany. According to Germany rule, every one has to join military compulsory at the age of seventeen. Due to this, he left Germany and went to Italy. He completed his school education in Italy. Further he joined 'Swiss Federal Institute of Technology'. Albert completed his graduation in 1900 with good marks. While learning in Switzerland, he got married with Hengerian girl named 'Mileva Merick' who was learning in his class. But he took divorce from her in 1919 leaving behind two sons and one daughter.He re-married in the same year but his second wife died in 1936.

It was essential for him to join service at any cost due to bad financial condition of his father. He joined as technical clerk in patent office in Bern city after two years struggle. In his office he used to study physics after completing his routine work. During his service in petent office, he submitted a research paper to 'Zurich University' and was awarded PhD.D.in 1905.

Einstein published the following four scientific research papers.

1) Theory of Relativity.
2) Brownian Theory of Motion.
3) Mass-Energy Relation E=mc^2.
4) Photoelectric Effect.


Einstein was awarded Noble Prize for the discovery of Photoelectric effect in 1921.The famous mass-energy relation E=mc^2 has supplied the basic principle for the production of 'Atom bomb'. Further we worked as Director of 'Kaiser William Institute of Physics' from 1914 to 1933. He left Germany in the year 1933 and joined as professor in Institute for Advanced Study in Prinstein(America). He retired from this institute in 1945.

He publish near about 300 research papers through out his lifetime. American President immediately started 'Man-Hatton Yojana' to make atom bomb on the suggestion of Einstein. Actually he was in opposition to make the direct use of atom bomb, but only to teach lesson to the Germany. He felt very guilty after hearing the news of bombarding the atom bombs on the city 'Hiroshima' and 'Nagasaki'

He worked for the welfare of human being after his retirement. He died on 18th April 1955 in America.


(1879-03-14)

Friday, May 28, 2010

"Maharana Pratap Mewar's Greatest Hero"



Born: May 9, 1540 in Kumbhalgarh, Rajasthan
Father's Name: Maharana Udai Singh II
Mother's Name: Rani Jeevant Kanwar
Died: January 29, 1597 in Chavand




Maharana Pratap was born on May 9th 1540 in Kumbhalgarh,
Rajasthan.His father n mother was Maharana Uday Singh II
and Rani Jeevant Kanwar. Maharana Uday Singh II was ruled
the kingdom of Mewar, with the capital Chittor. Among 24 children
Pratop was Eldest n hence given the title 'Crown Prince' .
He was 54th ruler of Mewar.

In 1567, when Crown Prince Pratap Singh was only 27 yrs,
Chittor was surroundedby the Mughal forces of Emperor Akbar.
The young Pratap Singh wanted to stay and fight
with the Mughals but the elders intervened and convinced
him to leave Chittor. So Maharana Uday Singh II moved his family
to Gogunda.

In Gogunda, Maharana Uday Singh II set up his temporary government.
But in 1572, Maharana Uday Singh II passed away hence the Crown Prince
Pratap become Maharana.

The year was 1572, Pratap Singh had just become the Maharana
of Mewar and he had not been back in Chittor since 1567, so long time.
The pain of his father's death, and the that his father had not been
able to see Chittor again. Akbar had control of Chittor
but not the kingdom of Mewar. So long as the people of Mewar
swore by their Maharana. Akbar could not realize his ambition of
being the 'Jahanpanah of Hindustan'.

In 1573, Akbar sents six diplomatic missions to Mewar,
to get Rana Pratap to agree to gave his kingdom to Akbar for controlling.
But Maharana Pratap was dissagreed. Then Akbar sents
Raja Man Singh
who was Brother-in-law of Akbar.
Maharana Pratap, angered that his fellow Rajput was aligned
with someone who had forced the submission of all Rajputs,
refused to sup with Raja Man Singh. Akbar understood that
Maharana Pratap would never submit and he would have to use
his troops against Mewar.

Akbar then tried to turn the people of the all-important Chittor
district against their king so they would not help Pratap. Akbar
appointed Kunwar Sagar Singh, a younger brother of Pratap,
to rule the conquered territory. Sagar, regretting his own treachery,
soon returned from Chittor, and committed suicide with a dagger in
the Mughal Court. Then Shakti Singh ,the younger brother of Pratap
now with Mugals army and warned his brother Pratap of Akbar's actions.

In 1576, the famous 'Battle of Haldighati' was fought with 20,000
Rajputs against a Mughal army of 80,000. Mughal army was commanded
by Raja Man Singh. The battle was agreesive, not conclusive, to the mughal's
army surprise greatly. Maharana Pratap's army was not defeated but was
surrounded by Mughal soldiers. But it was said that, Maharana Pratap's
life was saved by his estranged brother, Shakti Singh. During this war
Maharana Pratap's famous, and loyal, horse Chetak, who gave up his life
trying to save his Maharana.

After this war, Akbar tried several times to take over Mewar, failing each time.
Maharana Pratap himself was keeping up his quest for taking Chittor back.
However, the relentless attacks of the Mughal army had left his army weaker,
and he barely had enough money to keep it going. It is said that at this time,
one of his ministers, Bhama Shah, came and offered him all this wealth -
a sum enabling Maharana Pratap to support an army of 25,000 for 12 years.
It is said that before this generous gift from Bhama Shah, Maharana Pratap,
anguished at the state of his subjects, was beginning to lose his spirit in fighting Akbar.


In January 1597, Rana Pratap Singh I, Mewar's greatest hero, was seriously
injuredin a hunting accident. He left his body at Chavand, aged 56,
on January 29, 1597.He died fighting for his nation, for his people,
and most importantly for his honor.

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